The best friend a man has in the world may turn against him and become his enemy. His son or daughter that he has reared with loving care may prove ungrateful. Those who are nearest and dearest to us, those whom we trust with our happiness and our good name may become traitors to their faith.
The money that a man has, he may lose. It flies away from him, perhaps when he needs it most. A man's reputation may be sacrificed in a moment of ill-considered action. The people who are prone to fall on their knees to do us honor when success is with us, may be the first to throw the stone of malice when failure settles its cloud upon our heads.
The one absolutely unselfish friend that man can have in this selfish world, the one that never deserts him, the one that never proves ungrateful or treacherous is his dog. A man's dog stands by him in prosperity and in poverty, in health and in sickness. He will sleep on the cold ground, where the wintry winds blow and the snow drives fiercely, if only he may be near his master's side. He will kiss the hand that has no food to offer.
He will lick the wounds and sores that come in encounters with the roughness of the world. He guards the sleep of his pauper master as if he were a prince. When all other friends desert, he remains. When riches take wings, and reputation falls to pieces, he is as constant in his love as the sun in its journey through the heavens. If fortune drives the master forth, an outcast in the world, friendless and homeless, the faithful dog asks no higher privilege than that of accompanying him, to guard him against danger, to fight against his enemies.
And when the last scene of all comes, and death takes his master in its embrace and his body is laid away in the cold ground, no matter if all other friends pursue their way, there by the graveside will the noble dog be found, his head between his paws, his eyes sad, but open in alert watchfulness, faithful and true even in death.
人类与狗狗 Human beings and dog
Books and Arts; Book Review;Human beings and dogs;Man's best friend;
Scientific research throws new light on a very old partnership
Dog Sense: How the New Science of Dog Behaviour Can Make You a Better Friend to Your Pet. By John Bradshaw.
《狗的内心世界：狗狗行为学的研究能让你和狗狗相处的更好》 作者: John Bradshaw。
The relationship between people and dogs is unique. Among domesticated animals, only dogs are capable of performing such a wide variety of roles for humans: herding sheep, sniffing out drugs or explosives and being our beloved companions. It is hard to be precise about when the friendship began, but a reasonable guess is that it has been going strong for more than 20,000 years. In the Chauvet cave in the Ardèche region of France, which contains the earliest known cave paintings, there is a 50-metre trail of footprints made by a boy of about ten alongside those of a large canid that appears to be part-wolf, part-dog. The footprints, which have been dated by soot deposited from the torch the child was carrying, are estimated to be about 26,000 years old.
The first proto-dogs probably remained fairly isolated from each other for several thousand years. As they became progressively more domesticated they moved with people on large-scale migrations, mixing their genes with other similarly domesticated creatures and becoming increasingly dog-like (and less wolf-like) in the process. For John Bradshaw, a biologist who founded the anthrozoology department at the University of Bristol, having some idea about how dogs got to be dogs is the first stage towards gaining a better understanding of what dogs and people mean to each other. Part of his agenda is to explode the many myths about the closeness of dogs to wolves and the mistakes that this has led to, especially in the training of dogs over the past century or so.
始祖狗最初都是独来独往的，这一状况维持了数千年。但当它们被逐渐驯化后，跟随人类进行大规模迁徙，使得它们的基因与其它相似的家饲动物的基因发生了融合，渐渐的它们看上去更像狗而非狼了。作为 Bristol 大学的人类与动物关系学系的创始人，生物学家Mr. John Bradshaw认为，要想更好的理解狗狗与人类的关系，首先得具备一些关于狗狗进化的知识。他的一部分工作是探究很多有关狗与狼之间传说中的亲缘关系，及由此产生的各种误解。特别是过去一个世纪以来的狗狗驯化的过程。
One idea has governed dog training for far too long, Mr Bradshaw says. Wolf packs are supposedly despotic hierarchies dominated by alpha wolves. Dogs are believed to behave in the same way in their dealings with humans. Thus training a dog effectively becomes a contest for dominance in which there can be only one winner. To achieve this the trainer must use a variety of punishment techniques to gain the dog's submission to his mastery. Just letting a dog pass through a door before you or stand on the stairs above you is to risk encouraging it to believe that it is getting the upper hand over you and the rest of the household. Mr Bradshaw argues that the theory behind this approach is based on bad and outdated science.
Mr Bradshaw说，在对狗狗的长期驯化中，有一个理论一直主导着人类，即，狼群是受一个暴戾的头狼统领的。狗狗对人类的服从就沿袭了狼的这一行为模式。于是，对狗狗的驯化就成了统领权的竞赛，赢家只有一个。为了实现这一点，人类必须使用各种惩罚的方法来让狗狗服从它的主人。不能让狗狗先于你进家门或站在高高的楼梯顶端。这都会让狗狗相信在饲主及其家人面前，它们占了上风。 Mr Bradshaw 认为这种方法背后的理论基础都站不住脚而且相当落伍。
Dogs share 99.6% of the same DNA as wolves. That makes dogs closer to wolves than we are to chimps (with which we have about 96% of our DNA in common), but it does not mean that their brains work like those of wolves. Indeed, the outgoing affability of most dogs towards humans and other dogs is in sharp contrast to the mix of fear and aggression with which wolves react to animals from other packs. “Domestication has been a long and complex process,” Mr Bradshaw writes. “Every dog alive today is a product of this transition. What was once another one of the wild social canids, the grey wolf, has been altered radically, to the point that it has become its own unique animal.” If anything, dogs resemble juvenile rather than fully adult canids, a sort of arrested development which accounts for the way they remain dependent on their human owners throughout their lives.
狗与狼的基因99.6%是一样的。这使得狗与狼的关系远比人类与黑猩猩的更近(人类与黑猩猩的基因有96%是相同的)，但这并不意味着狗狗的大脑与狼的工作原理是一样的。的确，绝大多数的狗狗对人类和自己的同类都表现的很友好，于此截然相反的是，狼对其它动物的反应则表现为多疑和攻击性。“家饲驯化是一个漫长而复杂的过程” Mr Bradshaw写到，“每一条生活在今天的狗狗都是这一变迁的产物，曾有是一种群居的野生犬科动物-灰狼，经过了彻底的演变，从而变成了一种独一无二的动物”.如果说有什么相同的话，狗不再是成熟的犬科动物而是停留在了幼年状态，它们终其一生要依靠它们的饲主才能生活。
But what makes the dog-wolf paradigm especially misleading, Mr Bradshaw argues, is that until recently, the studies of wolves were of the wrong wolves in extremely artificial conditions. In the wild, wolf packs tend to be made up of close family members representing up to three generations. The father and mother of the first lot of cubs are the natural leaders of the pack, but the behavioural norm is one of co-operation rather than domination and submission. However, the wolves on which biologists founded their conclusions about dominance hierarchies were animals living in unnaturally constituted groups in captivity. Mr Bradshaw says that feral or “village” dogs, which are much closer to the ancestors of pet dogs than they are to wolves, are highly tolerant of one another and organise themselves entirely differently from either wild or captive wolves.
但是，是什么让狗与狼的关系模式误导了大家? Mr Bradshaw 认为问题出在作为研究对象的狼都是眷养在极端人工的环境下，是选“错”了狼。在野外，狼群都是由关系较近的祖孙三代家庭成员组成，父亲和母亲会自然而然的变成第一代子女幼仔的头狼，但在行为模式上表现的是合作关系而非统治和服从。而让生物学家们得出统治权争夺的结论都是基于那些生活在非自然状态下，被人工眷养的狼群之上的。 Mr Bradshaw 认为，与其说狼是宠物狗的祖先，不如说野狗或“土”狗才是宠物狗的祖先。因为它们之间更宽容，而且在组群关系上与不管是野生狼群或眷养狼群都相去甚远。
I have a dog. He is my favorite pet. He is very lovely. His name is Peter and he is two years old. His fur is long and white. He has big black eyes. His nose is very good. He can smell very well. He is quite small. He weighs about two kilograms. Peter's favorite food is meat. He also likes bones.
Peter is very friendly. I feed him every day. He never barks or bites. Peter likes lots of exercise. It is necessary to walk the dog in the park every day if you want it to be healthy. So I play with him every day in the park. Peter likes to run in the park. He often chases cats and birds. It is very interesting. Peter can find the way back easily. I think he is the cleverest animal of all.
I like my dog and he loves me too. He is very healthy. All my family like him. We look after him very carefully. I'll make a small and lovely house for him. I think he will be happy to live there. Do you like my dog?